TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic variation in NIN1 and C/VIF1 genes is significantly associated with Populus angustifolia resistance to a galling herbivore, Pemphigus betae. JF - Journal of insect physiology Y1 - 2016 A1 - Zinkgraf,Matthew S A1 - Meneses,Nashelly A1 - Whitham,Thomas G A1 - Allan,Gerard J KW - Animals KW - Aphids KW - beta-Fructofuranosidase KW - Enzyme Inhibitors KW - Genes, Plant KW - Genetic Variation KW - Haplotypes KW - Herbivory KW - Plant Immunity KW - Plant Proteins KW - Plant Tumors KW - Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide KW - Populus AB -

The identification of genes associated with ecologically important traits provides information on the potential genetic mechanisms underlying the responses of an organism to its natural environment. In this study, we investigated the genetic basis of host plant resistance to the gall-inducing aphid, Pemphigus betae, in a natural population of 154 narrowleaf cottonwoods (Populus angustifolia). We surveyed genetic variation in two genes putatively involved in sink-source relations and a phenology gene that co-located in a previously identified quantitative trait locus for resistance to galling. Using a candidate gene approach, three major findings emerged. First, natural variation in tree resistance to galling was repeatable. Sampling of the same tree genotypes 20 years after the initial survey in 1986 show that 80% of the variation in resistance was due to genetic differences among individuals. Second, we identified significant associations at the single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype levels between the plant neutral invertase gene NIN1 and tree resistance. Invertases are a class of sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes and play an important role in plant responses to biotic stress, including the establishment of nutrient sinks. These associations with NIN1 were driven by a single nucleotide polymorphism (NIN1_664) located in the second intron of the gene and in an orthologous sequence to two known regulatory elements. Third, haplotypes from an inhibitor of invertase (C/VIF1) were significantly associated with tree resistance. The identification of genetic variation in these two genes provides a starting point to understand the possible genetic mechanisms that contribute to tree resistance to gall formation. We also build on previous work demonstrating that genetic differences in sink-source relationships of the host influence the ability of P. betae to manipulate the flow of nutrients and induce a nutrient sink.

VL - 84 SN - 0022-1910 UR - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&LinkReadableName=Related%20Articles&IdsFromResult=26518288&ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumhttp://www.ncbi. ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetically informed ecological niche models improve climate change predictions JF - Global Change Biology Y1 - 2016 A1 - DH Ikeda A1 - Max,TL A1 - GJ Allan A1 - Lau,MK A1 - SM Shuster A1 - TG Whitham ER - TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic structure of a foundation species: scaling community phenotypes from the individual to the region. JF - Heredity Y1 - 2008 A1 - RK Bangert A1 - E V Lonsdorf A1 - Wimp,G M A1 - Shuster,S M A1 - Fischer,D A1 - Schweitzer,J A A1 - Allan,G J A1 - JK Bailey A1 - Whitham,T G KW - Animals KW - biodiversity KW - Ecosystem KW - Environment KW - Populus KW - Trees AB -

Understanding the local and regional patterns of species distributions has been a major goal of ecological and evolutionary research. The notion that these patterns can be understood through simple quantitative rules is attractive, but while numerous scaling laws exist (e.g., metabolic, fractals), we are aware of no studies that have placed individual traits and community structure together within a genetics based scaling framework. We document the potential for a genetic basis to the scaling of ecological communities, largely based upon our long-term studies of poplars (Populus spp.). The genetic structure and diversity of these foundation species affects riparian ecosystems and determines a much larger community of dependent organisms. Three examples illustrate these ideas. First, there is a strong genetic basis to phytochemistry and tree architecture (both above- and belowground), which can affect diverse organisms and ecosystem processes. Second, empirical studies in the wild show that the local patterns of genetics based community structure scale up to western North America. At multiple spatial scales the arthropod community phenotype is related to the genetic distance among plants that these arthropods depend upon for survival. Third, we suggest that the familiar species-area curve, in which species richness is a function of area, is also a function of genetic diversity. We find that arthropod species richness is closely correlated with the genetic marker diversity and trait variance suggesting a genetic component to these curves. Finally, we discuss how genetic variation can interact with environmental variation to affect community attributes across geographic scales along with conservation implications.

VL - 100 SN - 0018-067X UR - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubmed_pubmed&LinkReadableName=Related%20Articles&IdsFromResult=17047690&ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSumhttp://www.ncbi. IS - 2 ER - Error | SEGA

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